So far, scientists and doctors have not given an exact answer to this question.
In the scientific world and the medical environment, there are a variety of assumptions and opinions on this subject.
Consider the structure of the spinal column. It consists of many parts. The most important of these are the back muscles, which provide mobility of the spinal column, and the vertebrae of which its skeleton consists. Each vertebra has seven processes that are also involved in the movement: four articular processes, two transverse and one spinous. There are two joints between the vertebrae. The intervertebral disc consists of a pulpous nucleus, a fibrous ring, and is bounded by hyalic and closure plates above and below.
Ligaments give the spinal column stiffness and elasticity. The ligaments of the spinal column include the anterior and posterior longitudinal, inter-transverse ligament, as well as the yellow, interspinous and nuchal ligaments.
Inside the spinal column is the spinal cord, surrounded by three membranes, from which the nerve roots (31 pairs) extend to the right and left. All elements of the spinal column are accompanied by vessels – arteries, veins and lymphatic.
In which of all the listed structures do primary changes occur that cause back pain?
Some say that primary changes occur in the muscles of the back. This opinion gave rise to new treatment methods – myofascial realizing, a variety of gymnastics and even a whole science – kinesiology.
Others believe that it all starts with subluxations (subluxations) and dislocations of the intervertebral joints, which leads to the so-called functional blocks.
Still others utter mysterious words with an unclear meaning: “violation of the biomechanism of the vertebral motor segment.” And this biomechanics is allegedly violated due to a whole range of influences.
The fourth ones treat only the bone structure and call themselves osteopaths (in Latin osteon means “bone”).
Fifths, and most of them, believe that the root cause of back pain is damage to the intervertebral discs. This process is called osteochondrosis.
Where is the truth?
Pain in the spinal column is one of the most common pathological conditions in humans. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), 80% of the working population suffers from these pains; diseases of the spinal column occupy one of the first places in the overall statistics of morbidity, second only to acute respiratory diseases and injuries.
In this regard, in our country and abroad began to pay more attention to this problem. Even appeared and is actively developing (and rightly so!) An independent medical discipline – vertebroneurology (from the Latin name of the vertebra – vertebra).
It would seem that scientists and doctors are fully aware of the structure of the spinal column and all its structures. Textbooks and monographs describe the causes that lead to pain in the spine; the luminaries of science defend candidate and doctoral dissertations devoted to this issue. However, no one has yet been able to solve this crucial problem.
Despite all the methods of conservative exposure, osteochondrosis remains with the person for the rest of his life. Moreover, the patient’s condition worsens every year: pain intensifies, exacerbations become more frequent, and radiographs show more and more pathological changes in the spine.
Two questions come to mind. And all we know about the causes of osteoarthritis? And are we treating him correctly ?