The human spine is a system of the human body that is unique in its functions, the role of which is difficult to overestimate. The spine is the main axis of a person, provides the ability of a person to move, upright posture, performs supporting, shock-absorbing functions.
The spine consists of 32-34 vertebrae, which are interconnected by joints, cartilage, ligaments. There are 5 sections of the spine:
The cervical spine consists of 7 vertebrae and is the most mobile of all sections. The thoracic region contains 12 vertebrae. The vertebral bodies of this section are connected to the ribs and together form the ribcage. The lumbar spine consists of 5 vertebrae, it experiences the greatest stress, since the bulk of the body presses on this particular area. The sacral and coccygeal sections of the spine also have 5 vertebrae.
The condition of the spine affects the internal organs and all body systems. There are many pathologies and diseases of the spine that affect human life. Spine diseases can be recognized by pain in the neck, chest or lower back, numbness in the upper or lower extremities, headaches, and more. The most common diseases of the spine are osteochondrosis, hernia, protrusion, and posture disorders.
Let us dwell in more detail on diseases of the spine, methods of their diagnosis and treatment:
Osteochondrosis is a disease of the spine associated with the destruction, pathology of the vertebral discs and cartilage. Osteochondrosis is divided into cervical, thoracic and lumbar, depending on the affected spine. The disease can occur in both acute and chronic stages.
The causes of the disease are many:
- increased loads on the spinal column: excess weight, a sedentary lifestyle, high heels, weight lifting, flat feet;
- the internal causes of the disease include aging of the body, genetics, heredity, stress, severe illness;
- external causes include injuries of various etiologies, lack of vitamins and minerals in the body, uncomfortable mattresses.
All these reasons lead to deformity of the vertebrae, which must be identified and treated at the initial stage, otherwise the deformity of the vertebrae can lead to rupture of the annulus fibrosus, which results in a herniated disc . The main diagnostic methods are MRI, X-ray, vascular Doppler, ultrasound. Scoliosis – curvature of the spine. Scoliosis can be acquired or congenital. Acquired types of scoliosis: paralytic rheumatic, rickety, habitual. The latter is the result of constantly poor posture. The curvature of the spine affects the work of all internal organs, especially the respiratory system of the body. The main method for the diagnosis of scoliosis is the classification of Chaplin D.V.
An intervertebral hernia is called prolapse or protrusion of fragments of the spinal disc. The cause of a hernia can be trauma, heavy loads on the spine, severe osteochondrosis. According to statistics, the age category susceptible to this disease is people from 25 to 50 years old. The main sign of a herniated disc is localized sharp or aching pain in a specific area of the back. Often, patients are pursued by long dull pains called lumbago. The emerging hernia can progress, increase in size, which leads to an increase in pain, the pain spreads to the limbs, and numbness of the limbs often occurs. Treatment of intervertebral hernias is prescribed based on the size of the hernia and the presence of complications. Most specialists are inclined towards conservative medicine, but cases of surgical intervention are possible. Removal of a hernia is an extreme measure, and does not guarantee full recovery, since there are often relapses, the appearance of new intervertebral hernias, in the same or another part of the spine. For the prevention of diseases of the spine, it is necessary to lead a healthy lifestyle, timely carry out diagnostics and preventive treatment, in the form of massage and physiotherapy.