Football sections are well deservedly popular. Track and field athletics, aerobic exercises, ball control exercises contribute to the development of coordination and, in general, have a beneficial effect on the body. Of the injuries that can end a training session or playing on the football field, the most often encountered are:
- – concussion of the brain (usually mild);
- – bruises from falls or collisions with other players;
- – heatstroke;
- – damage to the ankle joint;
- – damage to the ligaments of the knee.
Sports concussion in football most often occurs after a collision with a goal, an arm, another player’s head, or improper headball. As a rule, such an injury is minor and does not result in severe damage.
If, after a collision, a person is not dizzy and he can clearly fix his gaze on any object (no nystagmus), then he can even continue the game: everything will end with a bump on his head.
At the slightest suspicion of a really concussion (nystagmus, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, unsteady gait), it is necessary to urgently consult a neurologist for examination and examination.
The following guidelines can help reduce the risk of concussion :
- – strict observance of the rules of the game and the safe behavior of the players themselves on the field;
- – the correct reception of the ball on the head – put the forehead under the ball, keep the knees slightly bent, do not close your eyes, on the contrary – close your mouth and clench your teeth, fix the neck with muscle tension, use your hands to keep balance;
- – hit the ball also with the forehead, push at the same time not with the neck, but with the body and knees, with a glance accompany the flight of the ball;
- – to conduct trainings and games in good lighting conditions.
Most often, the legs are affected. Injuries occur through aggressive contact with other players, in the event of falls, and stumbling.
As a rule, everything ends with a bruise on the lower leg or knee. However, with particularly aggressive collisions, subperiosteal hematomas, cracks and even fractures of the tibia or fibula can form.
It is not easy to detect such serious damage with a simple glance. Therefore, if after a collision a player cannot step on his foot, complains of pain, because of which it is difficult to run or walk, he must be immediately taken to the nearest emergency room for consultation with a traumatologist and X-ray examination.
Prevention is simple: using good shin guards every time you play.
Usually children face this problem more often. Classes in direct sunlight or playing in hot and humid weather lead to him.
It is not difficult to detect overheating: a person will complain of dizziness, headache, feeling of heat, shortness of breath. In severe cases, there is a loss of consciousness, convulsions.
Diagnosis is simple: the skin is hot and red, and when measuring body temperature, it is high.
First aid: move the player to a shady, dry and cool (but not cold) room, give water. In case of loss of consciousness or seizures – urgently take to the hospital.
Heatstroke prevention measures :
- – wear sportswear made from natural fabrics, preferably loose fit;
- – drink during training;
- – drink only water, avoid caffeine and sugary drinks as much as possible;
- – if you have to train or play for more than an hour – drink drinks with electrolytes, in extreme cases – lightly salt your drinking water with ordinary table salt;
- – the duration and intensity of the exercise increases gradually, over several weeks;
- – avoid exercising during hot times of the day.
This is what is commonly called “tuck your leg.” The risk of this injury is higher on uneven surfaces or when there are sudden changes in direction of travel.
In the process of injury, the ligaments that hold the foot in a supporting position are stretched (more often) or torn (less often). Sometimes the ligaments tear off fragments of the shin bones (condyles) to form a fracture.
On the field or in the gym, determining the severity of an ankle injury is difficult. If, after the episode of twisting the leg, the player stands up, the foot rotates freely and almost painlessly in all directions, then you can continue training or playing.
But it is better, nevertheless, after such an injury, to sit the player on the bench, apply cold to the sore spot and let him rest. Because further stress on the provoked ankle can lead to severe sprains, ligament ruptures, dislocations and fractures.
Severe pain in the area of injury, increasing swelling, cyanosis, the position of the foot at an unusual angle are signs that an urgent need to go to the hospital and take an x-ray.
To prevent tucking :
- – run with the ball only on level surfaces;
- – put on reliable high-quality boots;
- – strengthen the ankle – rise on tiptoe, balance on one leg, stretch the muscles of the lower leg, jump on one leg from side to side and back and forth;
- – to develop postural control with special exercises.
Knee ligament injury
A very serious football injury in which the ligaments inside the knee joint are stretched or, more commonly, torn. As a rule, cruciforms suffer.
The reasons for breaking the crosses are:
- – a blow to the front or side of the knee;
- – a critically abrupt change in the direction of running;
- – a sharp turn on the supporting leg when it is on the ground;
- – an abrupt stop while running.
There is such a sharp pain in the knee that a person can lose consciousness. The knee is deformed, but not always. Although an experienced sports physician is able to suspect such an injury by the mechanism and complaints, only X-ray or CT can confirm the diagnosis. Extremely serious damage because ligaments can tear off pieces of bone inside the knee joint.
Therefore, the first thing to do if you suspect a rupture of the knee ligaments is to ensure the leg rest, put the cold on the knee and immediately come with the victim to the emergency room.
Defending against such an injury is not easy . Exercises to strengthen the ligaments of the knee can help:
- – squats – feet shoulder-width apart, knees straight forward, ask the child to sit in an imaginary chair and when he squats, make sure that the knees do not turn inward;
- – the same squats, but on one leg (for trained);
- – we put the football player on his side, we pull our knees to the stomach and raise the upper part of the knee to the ceiling, without lifting the feet from the floor or the ground, hold the leg like this for 1-2 seconds and gradually lower it to its original position;
- – get on your hands and knees, back straight, and take your bent knee to the side, then change your legs (exercise “hydrant”).
On the pitch, you can reduce the risk of knee injuries a bit with quality cleats. But from a blow to the knee, they, of course, will not be able to save.