The spine plays an essential role for the human body; it is considered a supporting beam for the entire skeletal frame. If viewed from a building and architectural point of view, then such a beam should be straight and rigid.
But in the human body, these laws do not work, since the spine is similar in shape to the letter S and has flexibility due to the vertebrae. Discs are located between them, which provide cushioning and elasticity of the spinal column.
Vertebral flexibility can turn against a person. With a hypodynamic lifestyle, the vertebral bends seem to be cemented and can no longer return to their normal position.
As a result, scoliosis develops – a pathological curvature of the spinal column in the form of a lateral deviation from the norm. Even minor scoliosis is a pathology, since it can lead to even greater curvature in the future.
Scoliosis is subdivided by specialists according to several parameters:
- By origin;
- By location;
- By the type of curvature;
- By the degree of curvature;
- By the degree of deformation.
By origin, scoliosis is:
- Congenital – when the formation of pathological curvature occurs with improper location or development of the fetus or against the background of genetic disorders;
- Acquired – when pathological curvature occurs when muscle growth is lagging behind and skeletal growth is strongly advanced. You can also acquire scoliosis during school years due to improper posture and due to some pathological conditions;
- Idiopathic – when there is no definite cause for the development of the disease;
- Age-related – this form of scoliosis is observed after 40 due to degenerative processes in bone tissues such as osteoarthritis or osteoporosis.
The classification by the degree of curvature is as follows:
- Angle less than 10 ° – I degree;
- 11-25 ° – II degree;
- 26-50 ° – III degree;
- More than 50 ° – IV degree.
The types of curvature of scoliosis are subdivided as follows:
- S – shaped lesion forming 2 arcs;
- C – shaped deformation with the formation of one arc;
- Σ – shaped deformation, causing the formation of 3 arcs.
In accordance with the location of the scoliosis, there are several types:
- Lumbar or lumbar;
- Thoracic or chest;
- Mixed or thoracolumbar with curvature in the lumbar-thoracic junction;
- Combined – when two arcs are formed along the S-curvature.
In addition, there is a Cobb classification , dividing pathology into the following groups:
- Scoliosis of traumatic origin arising from diseases or injuries of the chest;
- Curvatures of myopathic nature, due to weak muscle and ligamentous development or pathologies of these tissues;
- Idiopathic scoliotic lesions;
- Neurotic scoliotic deformities caused by nervous system pathologies such as sciatica or poliomyelitis;
- Curvatures of a dysplastic or congenital nature.
Symptoms and Signs
Symptomatic manifestations of pathological vertebral curvature are a violation of the vertebral configuration, disorders of internal organs and nervous system functions. Such violations are usually manifested by the following set of symptoms:
- The deformation of the column is visible to the naked eye;
- In childhood, scoliosis can manifest itself as an asymmetric arrangement of the gluteal folds of the skin;
- The thoracic cell structure changes , the intercostal spaces on the outer side of the scoliosis bulge out, and on the inner side they sink;
- Twisting of the vertebrae, displacement around the axis;
- Against the background of changes in the volume of the retroperitoneal and retrosternal space, there is a violation of the activity of various internal structures such as the stomach or heart, intestines or lungs;
- Cervical scoliosis can provoke insufficient blood circulation, which will lead to damage to brain cells;
- Against the background of scoliosis, one limb is shortened, due to which the gait is disturbed and flat feet appear;
- Curvature of the pelvic region;
- Depressive state, irritability and emotional disorders due to a deficient existence.
At the first stage of development, the curvature is practically invisible. If we talk about grade 2 scoliosis, then the patients show an asymmetric arrangement of the buttocks and scapular angles, a twisted displacement of the vertebrae relative to the axis.
At this degree of pathology, there are still no functional disorders of the internal organs, but there are prerequisites for the transition to degree 3, when the situation is significantly aggravated.
Recommended reading – Upset stomach: what to do?
Causes of occurrence
Scoliosis can develop for many reasons, acquired or congenital.
The congenital form of curvatures takes up a quarter of all cases of pathology and is caused by improper formation of the spine in the process of intrauterine development. Acquired forms occur mainly in children and adolescents (4-15 years), when there is an active growth of the body.
The most common causes of acquired scoliosis are:
- Traumatic lesions of the legs and pelvic region;
- Muscular inflammation (myositis);
- Poor posture during learning activities;
- Shortening of one leg;
- Osteochondrosis, radiculopathy or hernial processes;
- Gastrointestinal tract or renal pathological disorders.
Such forms of scoliosis can be corrected and eliminated. To do this, you need to eliminate the main causal factor. If scoliosis is structural in nature, and is accompanied by anatomical structural changes, then the situation with recovery is much more complicated.
Structural scoliosis develops due to the following conditions:
- Spinal lesions with syringomyelia or poliomyelitis;
- Dystrophic deformity of muscle tissue in the back or neck;
- Vertebral tumor;
- Syphilitic or tuberculous vertebral lesions;
- Vertebral injuries;
- Congenital changes in the chest cell structure;
- Connective tissue pathologies of a hereditary nature;
- Pathologies that provoke the development of osteoporosis such as rickets, pathologies of the parathyroid gland , etc.
How to define a disease?
There are quite a few diagnostic methods that determine the presence of scoliosis, but X-ray is considered one of the first and most accurate today . This is a cheap and affordable, but at the same time highly informative diagnostic method, but it can be used no more than once every three months. Considering that modern X-ray machines have less radiation exposure.
The picture is taken panoramic, from the lower jaw to the pelvic region. Additionally, lateral images are performed in different projections to determine the presence of possible complications.
Scoliosis drastically reduces the quality of life of patients. They are tormented by psychological and physiological discomfort, people are embarrassed to wear tight clothes, to be on the beach, so they experience severe stressful worries.
With the further progression of the pathological process, pressure begins on the vital organs, which further leads to disruption of their activity.
Scoliosis in the last stages of development can cause respiratory, digestive and material exchange disorders, dangerous failures in the circulatory system in a small circle, which leads to oxygen and then heart failure.
According to statistics, almost every patient with scoliosis has ischemic heart disease. Therefore, such a spinal deformity requires mandatory correction.
How to cure spinal scoliosis in adults?
Treatment tactics are selected in accordance with the degree, localization and origin of scoliosis. In general, treatment is characterized by surgical or conservative techniques.
The latter involve the use of medicines, physiotherapy and massage procedures, manual methods of treatment.
Scoliotic lesions at 1-2 stages of pathological development, the main therapeutic goal is to achieve a normal spinal bend. In the final stages, such adjustments are impossible, so specialists try to achieve vertebral stability and prevent further progression of the deformity.
Correction techniques sided flattening in home
You can cope with deformation at home based on the following principles:
- Always control your posture – while sitting at a table or walking;
- The implementation of special gymnastic elements (more about them here), the action of which is aimed at relieving excessive tension, increasing the flexibility and strength of the spinal tissue, general improvement in the condition and the development of cartilaginous and ligamentous tissues.
At III-IV stages of scoliotic deformity, the only option is surgical correction. It consists in installing special implants on the vertebrae, which are movable or fixed structures. An example of such implants are the lamellar endocorrectors Medilar or Laka- Sampieva – Zagorodny .
Scoliosis and pregnancy
During pregnancy, a woman suffering from scoliotic deformities may experience a sharp increase in pain symptoms. Although most women with pathology in the initial stages easily endure the pregnancy period without experiencing any discomfort.
In the final stages of deformation, the ribs squeeze the internal organs, the oxygen supply of the internal organs, including the child, is disrupted, which negatively affects his brain.
For the prevention of pathology, it is recommended to constantly keep your back correctly.
Parents need to monitor the posture of their children.
It is important to lead an active lifestyle so that cementation of the vertebrae does not occur in the wrong position.
Experts categorically prohibit outdoor games, jumping or running, as well as strength exercises for scoliosis. You also can’t:
- Long sitting in an unchanged position;
- Cycling, tennis and other similar sports activities;
- Briefcases, bags or diplomats, you can only carry a backpack (behind the back).
Which doctor is treating?
Scoliosis is treated primarily by orthopedists and neuropathologists.
Do they take into the army?
Patients with scoliotic deformities of the back of the second degree or more are exempted from military service.